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Oxygen is one of the essential building blocks of life. Without oxygen, the human body can’t function. Oxygen saturation levels are a way of measuring how much oxygen is in the bloodstream.


Hemoglobin or haemoglobin( Hb or Hgb ) is a protein found in red blood cells.

This protein carries oxygen to all of your organs. 

On its way, it picks up carbon dioxide, which it transports back to the lungs to help with respiration. 

Your oxygen saturation level is the amount of oxygen that can be found in your hemoglobin proteins.

The Red blood cells are packed with hemoglobin molecules — up to 270 million in each blood cell to be exact. 

These molecules contain iron, which binds to oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, allowing the red blood cells to transport these items to the tissues in the body.

Under normal conditions, these blood cells and the oxygen they deliver help to maintain normal body functions. When levels are too low, you may experience headaches and shortness of breath. Chronically low levels can lead to heart and brain problems.

Your blood oxygen level is a measure of how much oxygen your red blood cells are carrying. Your body closely regulates your blood oxygen level. Maintaining the precise balance of oxygen-saturated blood is vital to your health.


When your blood oxygen level goes outside the typical range, you may begin experiencing symptoms.

Decreased oxygen saturation may result from a lower concentration of hemoglobin, such as in iron deficiency anemia. 

A decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen may occur when there is something else present that binds more strongly to hemoglobin than does oxygen, such as in carbon monoxide poisoning.


Low oxygen levels can cause a range of symptoms. In some individuals, these symptoms are mild and almost unnoticeable. In others, the symptoms can be debilitating. Severely low oxygen levels can cause serious complications, so it’s important to monitor symptoms and seek medical assistance if your blood oxygen levels are lower than normal. Here are some of the most common symptoms associated with hypoxemia:

  • Dizziness and confusion

  • Light-headedness

  • Rapid heartbeat

  • Pounding headache

  • Difficulty breathing, including shortness of breath and wheezing

  • Chest pain

  • Fatigue

  • Cyanosis 

If you continue to have low blood oxygen levels, you may show symptoms of cyanosis. The hallmark sign of this condition is a blue discoloration of your nail beds, skin, and mucus membranes.

Cyanosis is considered an emergency. If you’re experiencing symptoms, you should seek immediate medical attention. Cyanosis can lead to respiratory failure, which can be life-threatening.


Anemia and nutritional deficiencies can cause oxygen saturation levels to plummet. 

Anemia is a condition where the body doesn’t produce enough blood cells to transport oxygen to the body. There are several types of anemia including iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and vitamin deficiency anemia. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition where your body does not produce enough red blood cells. This can lead to low oxygen saturation levels.

People who are deficient in iron and other vitamins may also have low blood oxygen levels. That’s because iron is what binds to oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. 

Deficiencies in vitamins including vitamin B12, vitamin C, and folate can also cause anemia and low oxygen saturation.

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Bio-Active Iron

WHO Recommended IRON

The severity of coronavirus (COVID-19) is determined by the presence of

1. Pneumonia,

2. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS-CoV-2),

3. Myocarditis,

4. Microvascular thrombosis and/or cytokine storms,


all of which involve underlying inflammation.


A principal defence against uncontrolled inflammation, and against viral infection in general, is provided by T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs). Treg levels have been reported to be low in many COVID-19 patients and can be increased by vitamin D supplementation.


Low vitamin D levels have been associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and a significantly increased risk of pneumonia and viral upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increase in thrombotic episodes, which are frequently observed in COVID-19. Vitamin D deficiency has been found to occur more frequently in patients with obesity and diabetes.

Did You Know

Up to 60% of the human adult body is water. According to H.H. Mitchell, Journal of Biological Chemistry 158, the brain and heart are composed of 73% water, and the lungs are about 83% water. The skin contains 64% water, muscles and kidneys are 79%, and even the bones are watery: 31%.

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